C Programming Language Pdf

Posted By admin On 12/01/22

The C Programming Language First Edition Pdf And Epub Available for download at the bottom of this post. There is the different version of The C Programming Language Book By Kernighan And Ritchie. The C Programming Language book's 1st, 2nd, 3rd Edition are available for free download. Dennis Ritchie C Book Pdf Latest Edition can be download. Before getting started with C programming, lets get familiarized with the language first. C is a general-purpose programming language used for wide range of applications from Operating systems like Windows and iOS to software that is used for creating 3D movies.

What is C Programming? - The Basics

Before getting started with C programming, lets get familiarized with the language first.

C is a general-purpose programming language used for wide range of applications from Operating systems like Windows and iOS to software that is used for creating 3D movies.

C programming is highly efficient. That’s the main reason why it’s very popular despite being more than 40 years old.

Standard C programs are portable. The source code written in one system works in another operating system without any change.

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As mentioned, it’s a good language to start learning programming. If you know C programming, you will not just understand how your program works, but will also be able to create a mental picture on how a computer works.

More information on C Language.

History of C programming

C is closely associated with Unix Operating system

Development of Unix System

The PDP-11 version of Unix system was written in assembly language. Assembly languages are low-level programming languages that are specific to a particular computer architecture. They are hard to write and understand.

The developers of Unix Operating system (including Dennis Ritchie and Stephen C. Johnson) decided to rewrite the system in B language. However, B couldn’t suffice some of the features of PDP-11, which led to the development of C.

In 1972, the development of C started on the PDP-11 Unix system. A large part of Unix was then rewritten in C. By 1973, C was powerful enough to be used in Unix Kernel. Dennis Ritchie and Stephen C. Johnson made further changes to the language for several years to make it portable in Unix Operating system.

First Book on C Programming

In 1978, the first book of C programming, The C Programming Language, was published. The first edition of the book provided programmers informal specification of the language. Written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, this book is popular among C programmers as 'K&R'.


With the rapid growth of C language for several years, it was time for language to get it standardized.

C89. The first standard of C was published by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1989. This version is commonly popular as C89.

C99. In late 1990’s, several new features like inline functions, several new data types and flexible array-members were added to the C standard. This is commonly known as C99.

C11. The C11 standard has new features like type generic macros, atomic operations, anonymous structures that doesn’t exist in C99.

All these three standards are also known by the name of ANSI C.

“Standard C programs are portable”. This means, the programs that follow ANSI C standard are portable among operating systems.

If you are new to programming, it’s advisable to follow the standard (ANSI C in case of C programming) that is accepted everywhere. It will help you learn the language the way it was intended.

Features of C Programming Language

A procedural language.

In procedural languages like C, a list of predefined instructions are carried out step by step. A typical C program may contain one or more procedures (functions) to perform a task.

If you are new to programming, you might think this is the only way all programming languages work. However, there are other programming paradigms as well. One of the commonly used paradigms is Object-oriented programming (OOP) which allows developers to create objects to solve the given task. If you are interested, check out the differences between procedural and object oriented languages.

C programs are fast.

Newer languages like Python and Java offer more features (garbage collection, dynamic typing) than C programming. However, the performance lowers due to additional processing.

C Programming Tutorial Pdf

C language trusts programmers and allows direct manipulation of the computer hardware. This is not possible in most high-level programming languages. It’s one of the reasons why C is considered good choice to start learning programming.

Standard C programs are portable.

“Write once, compile everywhere”. Well-written standard C programs are portable, meaning, programs written in one system (e.g. Windows 7) can be compiled in another system(e.g. Mac OS) without any change.

Use of Modularity.

You can store sections of C code in the form of libraries for future use. This concept is known as modularity.

C itself can do very little on its own. The power of C language comes from its libraries. C comes with standard libraries to solve common problems. Suppose, you need to display something on the screen, you can include “stdio.h” library that allows you to use printf() function.

Statically typed language.

C is a statically typed language. This means that the type of a variable is checked during the compile time but not in the run-time. This helps in detection of errors during the software development cycle. Also, the statically typed languages are faster than dynamically typed language in general.

General purpose.

Despite being old, C is used in variety of applications from system programming to photo editing softwares. Some of the applications where C programming is used are as follows:

  • Embedded Systems
  • Operating System - Windows, Linux, OSX, Android, iOS
  • Databases - PostgreSQL, Oracle, MySQL, MS SQL Server
  • Other Uses - Network drivers, Compilers, Print spoolers
First edition

The C Programming Language (sometimes termed K&R, after its authors' initials) is a computer programmingbook written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the latter of whom originally designed and implemented the language, as well as co-designed the Unixoperating system with which development of the language was closely intertwined. The book was central to the development and popularization of the C programming language and is still widely read and used today. Because the book was co-authored by the original language designer, and because the first edition of the book served for many years as the de facto standard for the language, the book was regarded by many to be the authoritative reference on C.[1][2]


C was created by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the early 1970s as an augmented version of Ken Thompson's B.[3]Another Bell Labs employee, Brian Kernighan, had written the first C tutorial,[4]and he persuaded Ritchie to coauthor a book on the language.[5]Kernighan would write most of the book's 'expository' material, and Ritchie's reference manual became its appendices.

The first edition, published February 22, 1978, was the first widely available book on the C programming language. Its version of C is sometimes termed K&R C (after the book's authors), often to distinguish this early version from the later version of C standardized as ANSI C.[6]

In April 1988, the second edition of the book was published, updated to cover the changes to the language resulting from the then-new ANSI C standard, particularly with the inclusion of reference material on standard libraries. The second edition of the book (and as of 2018, the most recent) has since been translated into over 20 languages. In 2012, an eBook version of the second edition was published in ePub, Mobi, and PDF formats.

ANSI C, first standardized in 1989 (as ANSI X3.159-1989), has since undergone several revisions, the most recent of which is ISO/IEC 9899:2018 (also termed C18), adopted as an ANSI standard in June 2018. However, no new edition of The C Programming Language has been issued to cover the more recent standards.


Byte magazine stated in August 1983, '[The C Programming Language] is the definitive work on the C language. Don't read any further until you have this book!'[1]Jerry Pournelle wrote in the magazine that year that the book 'is still the standard ... a bit terse'. He continued, 'You can learn the C language without getting Kernighan and Ritchie, but that's doing it the hard way. You're also working too hard if you make it the only book on C that you buy.'[7]


The C Programming Language has often been cited as a model for technical writing, with reviewers describing it as having clear presentation and concise treatment. Examples generally consist of complete programs of the type one is likely to encounter in daily use of the language, with an emphasis on system programming. Its authors said:

We have tried to retain the brevity of the first edition. C is not a big language, and it is not well served by a big book. We have improved the exposition of critical features, such as pointers, that are central to C programming. We have refined the original examples, and have added new examples in several chapters. For instance, the treatment of complicated declarations is augmented by programs that convert declarations into words and vice versa. As before, all examples have been tested directly from the text, which is in machine-readable form.

— preface to the second edition[8]
'Hello, World!' program by Brian Kernighan (1978)

The book introduced the 'Hello, World!' program, which prints only the text 'hello, world', as an illustration of a minimal working C program. Since then, many texts have followed that convention for introducing a programming language.

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Before the advent of ANSI C, the first edition of the text served as the de facto standard of the language for writers of C compilers. With the standardization of ANSI C, the authors more consciously wrote the second edition for programmers rather than compiler writers, saying:

Appendix A, the reference manual, is not the standard, but our attempt to convey the essentials of the standard in a smaller space. It is meant for easy comprehension by programmers, but not as a definition for compiler writers—that role properly belongs to the standard itself. Appendix B is a summary of the facilities of the standard library. It too is meant for reference by programmers, not implementers. Appendix C is a concise summary of the changes from the original version.

C programming language pdf
— preface to the second edition[8]

The influence of The C Programming Language on programmers, a generation of whom first worked with C in universities and industry, has led many to accept the authors' programming style and conventions as recommended practice, if not normative practice. For example, the coding and formatting style of the programs presented in both editions of the book is often referred to as 'K&R style' or the 'One True Brace Style' and became the coding style used by convention in the source code for the Unix and Linuxkernels.

See also[edit]

C programming notes pdf


C Programming Notes Pdf

  1. ^ abWard, Terry A. (August 1983). 'Annotated C / A Bibliography of the C Language'. Byte. p. 268. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  2. ^Prinz, Peter; Crawford, Tony (2005-12-16). C in a Nutshell. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 3. ISBN9780596550714.
  3. ^Ritchie, Dennis M. (1993). 'The Development of the C Language'. History of Programming Languages, 2nd Edition. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  4. ^'Leap In and Try Things: Interview with Brian Kernighan'. Harmony at Work. October 24, 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
  5. ^Computerphile (2015-08-18). ''C' Programming Language: Brian Kernighan - Computerphile'. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  6. ^Kernighan, Brian W.; Ritchie, Dennis M. (February 1978). The C Programming Language (1st ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN0-13-110163-3.
  7. ^Pournelle, Jerry (December 1983). 'The User Looks at Books'. Byte. p. 519. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  8. ^ abKernighan, Brian; Ritchie, Dennis M. (March 1988). The C Programming Language (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN0-13-110362-8.

External links[edit]

  • The C Programming Language, first edition available at the Internet Archive
  • 'C Programming'. Bell Labs Computing Sciences Research Center. 2004-06-13. Archived from the original on 2017-02-21. Retrieved 17 January 2017.. Another archived page: 'The C Programming Language'. 2016-02-04.

C++ Programming Language Codes

C language standardsSucceeded by
C89 / C90 / 'ANSI C'
(2nd edition of book)

C Programming Language Book Pdf

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